The CHARM-10 is a computational model of the 10-year-old child human body and can be used to investigate the human body responses in various impact scenarios. CHARM-10 is currently available in two different variants (see Figure-1).
- a CHARM-10 pedestrian model and
- a CHARM-10 occupant model
Figure-1: Pedestrian and Occupant CHARM-10 models
The CHARM-10 generally represents the anatomical features and the biomechanical properties of the 10-year-old human body (see Figure-2). Its main applications are the FE simulations of the kinematics of the human body in occupant and pedestrian safety studies and the evaluations of stresses and strains within a specific anatomical structure.
Figure-2: Details of the head and internal organs of the CHARM-10
The CHARM-10 represents an average 10-year-old child with a height of 1401 mm and a weight of 35.0 kg, thus leading to a BMI (body mass index) of about 17.8. The model mainly consists of solid (hexa- and tetra mesh) and shell elements. Discrete and beam elements are also used to model connections like tendons, ligaments and also muscles.
The following table provides some general information about the pedestrian of the CHARM-10 model
|Time step size||3.6 e-4 ms|
The CHARM-10 has been validated against a number of loading conditions. The following table shows the validation cases run in the past. We will continue our efforts to improve the biofidelity of CHARM-10 for further applications.
|Body part||Loading condition||Subjects tested|
|Head||Frontal impact||Adult cadavers|
|Drop tests, compression||Pediatric cadavers|
|Segment tension, flexion, extension||Pediatric cadavers|
|Whole neck tension, flexion and extension||Pediatric cadaversAdult cadavers|
|Whole neck flexion and extension (with active muscle)||Pediatric volunteersAdult volunteers|
|Thorax||CPR (Anterior posterior compression)||Pediatric patients|
|Frontal pendulum impact||Pediatric cadavers|
|Thorax/abdomen||Belt loading||Pediatric cadavers|
|Lateral pendulum impact||Pediatric cadavers|
|Lateral impact||Adult cadavers (Results scaled)|
|Lower extremity||Low-speed 3-point bending of femur, tibia, and fibula||Pediatric cadavers|
|Dynamic 3-point bending of thigh and leg||Adult cadavers (Results scaled)|
|Dynamic 4-point bending of knee||Adult cadaver (Results scaled)|
Typical applications for the CHARM-10 include pedestrian safety simulations and child occupant simulations. For instance, the pedestrian model can be used to investigate the interaction between the head and the vehicle hood and to investigate the injury to lower extremities. Figure-3 shows an example of a pedestrian laterally impacted by a vehicle using the CHARM-10 pedestrian model.
Figure-3: The CHARM-10 pedestrian model in a frontal impact case
For more validation and application information, please refer to our publications.
- Jiang B, Cao L, Mao H, Wagner C, Marek S, Yang KH. Development of a 10-year-old paediatric thorax finite element model validated against cardiopulmonary resuscitation data. Comput Methods Biomech Biomed Engin. 2014;17(11):1185-97.
- Dong L, Li G, Mao H, Marek S, Yang KH. Development and validation of a 10-year-old child ligamentous cervical spine finite element model. Ann Biomed Eng. 2013 Dec;41(12):2538-52.
- Dong L, Mao H, Li G, Yang KH. Investigation of pediatric neck response and muscle activation in low-speed frontal impacts. Comput Methods Biomech Biomed Engin. 2014 Aug 18:1-13.
- Mao H, Holcombe S, Shen M, Jin X, Wagner CD, Wang SC, Yang KH, King AI. Development of a 10-year-old full body geometric dataset for computational modeling. Ann Biomed Eng. 2014 Oct;42(10):2143-55.
- Jiang B, Mao H, Cao L, Yang KH. Application of an anatomically-detailed finite element thorax model to investigate pediatric cardiopulmonary resuscitation techniques on hard bed. Comput Biol Med. 2014 Sep;52:28-34.
- Jiang B, Mao H, Cao L, and Yang K, Experimental Validation of Pediatric Thorax Finite Element Model under Dynamic Loading Condition and Analysis of Injury, SAE Technical Paper 2013-01-0456, 2013, doi:10.4271/2013-01-0456.
- Dong L, Mao H, Li G and Yang KH. The Ten‐Year‐Old Child Neck Failure in Tension Using A Finite Element Model, Proceedings of IRCOBI Conference 2013.
- Shen M, Zhu F, Mao H, Fan H, Mone N, Sanghavi V, Kalra A, Jin X, Chou CC, Yang, KH. Finite element modeling of 10-year-old child pelvis and lower extremities with growth plates for pedestrian protection. Int. J. Vehicle Safety 2015 July, 8(3), 263-286.
- Shen M, Zhu F, Jiang B, Sanghavi V, Fan H, Cai Y, Wang Z, Kalra A, Jin X, Chou CC, Yang KH. Development and a Limited Validation of a Whole-Body Finite Element Pedestrian and Occupant Models of a 10-Year-Old Child, Proceedings of IRCOBI Conference 2015.
Academic institutions can request the CHARM-10 model for research free of charge providing that the institution agrees with a set of user agreements. For-Profit organizations can purchase a license of CHARM-10 model providing that the organization agrees with the user agreements. An abbreviated version of the agreement is listed below. To download the full version of License Agreement for Academic institutions, Click here. To download the full version of License Agreement for For-profit organizations, Click here.
Please send or fax the signed agreement to Dr. King H. Yang in order to receive the CHARM-10 models.
King H. Yang
Wayne State University
818 W. Hancock St.
Detroit, Ml 48201
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