The CHARM-10 is a computational model of the 10-year-old child human body and can be used to investigate the human body responses in various impact scenarios. CHARM-10 is currently available in two different variants (see Figure-1).

  • a CHARM-10 pedestrian model and
  • a CHARM-10 occupant model  


Figure-1: Pedestrian and Occupant CHARM-10 models

The CHARM-10 generally represents the anatomical features and the biomechanical properties of the 10-year-old human body (see Figure-2). Its main applications are the FE simulations of the kinematics of the human body in occupant and pedestrian safety studies and the evaluations of stresses and strains within a specific anatomical structure.


Figure-2: Details of the head and internal organs of the CHARM-10

The CHARM-10 represents an average 10-year-old child with a height of 1401 mm and a weight of 35.0 kg, thus leading to a BMI (body mass index) of about 17.8. The model mainly consists of solid (hexa- and tetra mesh) and shell elements. Discrete and beam elements are also used to model connections like tendons, ligaments and also muscles.

The following table provides some general information about the pedestrian of the CHARM-10 model

Part 993
Nodes 949,311
Elements 1,678,610
Contacts 212
Time step size 3.6 e-4 ms

The CHARM-10 has been validated against a number of loading conditions. The following table shows the validation cases run in the past. We will continue our efforts to improve the biofidelity of CHARM-10 for further applications.

Body part Loading condition Subjects tested
Head Frontal impact Adult cadavers
Drop tests, compression Pediatric cadavers


Segment tension, flexion, extension Pediatric cadavers
Whole neck tension, flexion and extension Pediatric cadaversAdult cadavers
Whole neck flexion and extension (with active muscle) Pediatric volunteersAdult volunteers
Thorax CPR (Anterior posterior compression) Pediatric patients
Frontal pendulum impact Pediatric cadavers
Thorax/abdomen Belt loading Pediatric cadavers


Lateral pendulum impact Pediatric cadavers
Lateral impact Adult cadavers (Results scaled)
Lower extremity Low-speed 3-point bending of femur, tibia, and fibula Pediatric cadavers
Dynamic 3-point bending of thigh and leg Adult cadavers (Results scaled)
Dynamic 4-point bending of knee Adult cadaver (Results scaled)


Typical applications for the CHARM-10 include pedestrian safety simulations and child occupant simulations. For instance, the pedestrian model can be used to investigate the interaction between the head and the vehicle hood and to investigate the injury to lower extremities. Figure-3 shows an example of a pedestrian laterally impacted by a vehicle using the CHARM-10 pedestrian model.


Figure-3: The CHARM-10 pedestrian model in a frontal impact case

For more validation and application information, please refer to our publications.

  • Jiang B, Cao L, Mao H, Wagner C, Marek S, Yang KH. Development of a 10-year-old paediatric thorax finite element model validated against cardiopulmonary resuscitation data. Comput Methods Biomech Biomed Engin. 2014;17(11):1185-97.
  • Dong L, Li G, Mao H, Marek S, Yang KH. Development and validation of a 10-year-old child ligamentous cervical spine finite element model. Ann Biomed Eng. 2013 Dec;41(12):2538-52.
  • Dong L, Mao H, Li G, Yang KH. Investigation of pediatric neck response and muscle activation in low-speed frontal impacts. Comput Methods Biomech Biomed Engin. 2014 Aug 18:1-13.
  • Mao H, Holcombe S, Shen M, Jin X, Wagner CD, Wang SC, Yang KH, King AI. Development of a 10-year-old full body geometric dataset for computational modeling. Ann Biomed Eng. 2014 Oct;42(10):2143-55.
  • Jiang B, Mao H, Cao L, Yang KH. Application of an anatomically-detailed finite element thorax model to investigate pediatric cardiopulmonary resuscitation techniques on hard bed. Comput Biol Med. 2014 Sep;52:28-34.
  • Jiang B, Mao H, Cao L, and Yang K, Experimental Validation of Pediatric Thorax Finite Element Model under Dynamic Loading Condition and Analysis of Injury, SAE Technical Paper 2013-01-0456, 2013, doi:10.4271/2013-01-0456.
  • Dong L, Mao H, Li G and Yang KH. The Ten‐Year‐Old Child Neck Failure in Tension Using A Finite Element Model, Proceedings of IRCOBI Conference 2013.
  • Shen M, Zhu F, Mao H, Fan H, Mone N, Sanghavi V, Kalra A, Jin X, Chou CC, Yang, KH. Finite element modeling of 10-year-old child pelvis and lower extremities with growth plates for pedestrian protection. Int. J. Vehicle Safety 2015 July, 8(3), 263-286.
  • Shen M, Zhu F, Jiang B, Sanghavi V, Fan H, Cai Y, Wang Z, Kalra A, Jin X, Chou CC, Yang KH. Development and a Limited Validation of a Whole-Body Finite Element Pedestrian and Occupant Models of a 10-Year-Old Child, Proceedings of IRCOBI Conference 2015.

Academic institutions can request the CHARM-10 model for research free of charge providing that the institution agrees with a set of user agreements. For-Profit organizations can purchase a license of CHARM-10 model providing that the organization agrees with the user agreements. An abbreviated version of the agreement is listed below. To download the full version of License Agreement for Academic institutionsClick here.  To download the full version of License Agreement for For-profit organizationsClick here.  

Please send or fax the signed agreement to Dr. King H. Yang in order to receive the CHARM-10 models.

King H. Yang
Bioengineering Center
Wayne State University
818 W. Hancock St.
Detroit, Ml 48201
Fax: (313)-577-8333


This Agreement is a legal agreement between LICENSEE and Wayne State University. Some important terms are listed below. Please download the full version of the License Agreement for more details.

  • LICENSEE agrees that it shall use the LICENSED MODEL and any derivative works thereof, only for LICENSEES sole and exclusive Internal Use and shall not disclose, sell, license, transfer or otherwise distribute the LICENSED MODEL or any derivatives thereof to any third party without the prior written consent of WSU.
  • LICENSEE agrees that WSU is under no obligation to provide any maintenance, improvements, modifications, enhancements, updates or support services for the LICENSED MODEL.
  • LICENSEE will communicate in a timely manner to WSU full details of any improvements, modifications and supplements to the LICENSED MODEL and any derivative works of the LICENSED MODEL developed, authored or conceived by the LICENSEE in using the LICENSED MODEL ("IMPROVEMENTS").
  • If LICENSEE at any time fails to abide by the terms of this Agreement or infringes any third party rights, WSU shall have the right to immediately terminate the license granted herein and pursue any other legal or equitable remedies available.
  • LICENSEE will cite WSU as the owner and source of the LICENSED MODEL, and any applicable version number, when it publishes research which used the LICENSED MODEL.
  • (Applied to For-profit User Agreement Only) LICENSEE agrees to pay a one-time, non-refundable administrative fee of $4000.00 (USD)

The LICENSED MODEL is of United States origin. LICENSEE agrees to comply with all applicable international and national laws that apply to the LICENSED MODEL including the United States Export Administration Regulations as well as end-user, end-use, and destinations restrictions issued by the United States.